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Binishell domes are thin-shelled reinforced concrete structures which became popular after the first was built in the mid 1960’s by the Italian architect Dante Bini. Since then, roughly 1600 Binishells have been built in 23 countries across the world (Levy, 39). The domes were well accepted due to their quick construction time, low cost, high strength and reduced carbon footprint when compared to conventional construction.
They range in height from roughly 36 to 115 feet and have been built to span up to 300 feet. Due to the versatile nature of Binishells, they have been used in the construction of schools, housing, sports arenas, shopping malls, storage buildings and silos (Binisystems). The domes are constructed by inflating a membrane which lifts reinforcement steel and wet concrete into the desired shape by varying the air pressure within the membrane. The unique construction needs to be followed accurately and if it isn’t the domes quickly lose their structural integrity. Due to faulty construction practices, there have been issues with the domes’ strength and in a few cases, Binishells have failed to the point of collapse.
When built properly, these domes have the potential to provide living space that withstands fires and earthquakes, starting at $3,500.
Now is currently being taken to the next level by his son, architect Nicoló Bini.
The concept is much like inflating a balloon, covered in papier-mâché, except in place of the papier it uses concrete with a wood & metal support structure. A giant, inflatable membrane is covered with the support structure, concrete is added and it is inflated until the concrete can dry and harden in position. Binishells range in size from a single room to domes 120 feet in diameter.
While Dante's father was interested in pushing the technology further and making the domes bigger (in some cases to disaster), Dante has decided to go smaller, making them cheaper and easier to build.
Other companies have jumped on the idea, some even modifying it. In the below video, Monolithic shows us how easily one of these can be built.
Las casas de adobe se encuentran entre las opciones de construcción con el menor impacto posible. Sin embargo, todo el proceso se realiza normalmente de forma manual, lo que lleva mucho tiempo y preparación previa.
Para facilitar y ayudar a que estas casas más eficientes, puedan construirse de forma más rápida, la compañía italiana “World’s Advanced Saving Project” (WASP) ha creado una impresora 3D de adobe.
Algo único y que promete poder hacer casas de este tipo no solo en menos tiempo sino con diseños que fortalecen la estructura y serian casi imposible de hacer con otro método.
La máquina funciona tan solo con barro y paja. Se trata de un modelo experimental, para poder mejorar y lograr una impresora que el día de mañana pueda construir casas sostenibles, a lo largo y ancho del mundo.
Cómo y donde se construye esta casa
La primera construcción de adobe 3D se está llevando a cabo en la comunidad tecnológica de Shamballa en Massa Lombarda, Italia.De esta manera el equipo de WASP esta utilizado los materiales del propio terreno y todos los interesados en esta nueva tecnología han sido invitados a participar, colaborando y aprendiendo con el proceso de construcción.
Esto es sólo la primera prueba en el mundo real de la impresora. El funcionamiento del sistema es simple. Con la ayuda de una especie de mezclador, se logra la masa de arcilla y paja con la textura ideal para la construcción. En cuanto el barro esta amasado, la impresora lo eleva y carga una manga parecida a una manga pastelera y con un aplicador gigante, empieza a imprimir la casa, como si se tratase de un pastel gigante. En muy poco tiempo la casa se ve crecer de forma simple y asombrosa.
Ya habían realizados distintas impresiones en arcilla a pequeña escala desde jarrones a muebles como sillas, pero esta vez el proyecto creció y llegaron a la idea de construir una impresora capaz de construir casas.
La primera casa de adobe impresa en 3d, no esta finalizada, pero las pruebas y los resultados obtenidos están causando una gran revuelo, y el grupo responsable pretende terminar la casa sin usar ninguna otra materia prima, para poder evaluar, resistencia al clima, entre otras cosas.
Dutch studio DUS Architects has 3D printed an eight-square-metre cabin and accompanying bathtub in Amsterdam, and is now inviting guests to stay overnight (+ slideshow).
DUS Architects used sustainable bio-plastic to create the 3D Print Urban Cabin, which is intended to demonstrate how additive manufacturing can offer solutions for temporary housing or disaster relief.Photograph by Sophia van den Hoek
When the cabin is no longer needed, it can be destroyed and almost all the materials can be reused.
"The building is a research into compact and sustainable dwelling solutions in urban environments," said the team.
Photograph by Sophia van den Hoek
"3D printing techniques can be used particularly well for small temporary dwellings or in disaster areas," they said.
"After use, the bio print material can be shredded entirely and re-printed into new designs."Photograph by Sophia van den Hoek
The Amsterdam-based architecture studio is currently in the final stages of a project to build a full-size 3D-printed canal house. This smaller project offers an insight into what that structure will look like.Photograph by DUS Architects
Located in a former industrial area, the tiny gabled cabin contains just 25 cubic metres of area – far less than the average micro home.
A window punctures one end, while the other integrates both an entrance and a stepped porch seating area. Its walls are patterned with angular protrusions that create a three-dimensional surface, giving the building extra structural stability.
All of these surfaces are black, thanks to the bio-based 3D-printing filament – a product with linseed oil as its main component, which the architects have been developing with major consumer manufacturing companyHenkel.
A small amount of concrete was also used, to provide a durable flooring surface. It infills a patterned grid, which extends out from the cabin to form a pebbled pathway across a small garden.
"Entirely 3D printed with black coloured bio-based material, it showcases different types of facade ornament, form-optimisation techniques, and smart solutions for insulation and material consumption," said the team.
Photograph by DUS Architects
Inside, the cabin contains enough space for a bed, although this can be folded up into a seat during the day. There is no space for a bathroom, but a large 3D-printed bath is located in the garden.
"In the green around the cabin you can enjoy the sculptural printed bathtub, and watch the sunset surrounded by waving poplar trees," added the architects.
DUS Architects first unveiled designs for the 3D printed canal house back in 2013 and is aiming to complete the project early next year.
But the 3D Print Urban Cabin isn't the first completed example of the studio's 3D printing expertise – earlier this year it created a sculptural facade for a European Union meeting building, which was the first public reveal of its so-called "XXL 3D prints".
This technique uses fused deposition modelling, the same form of additive manufacturing used by most household 3D printers.
The cabin is available for short-term lets.
Developed by Kodasema, an Estonian design company, the Koda can be dismantled or reassembled in seven hours. Inside it has a living room, kitchen, dining area, lofted bedroom, and bathroom. Koda is small too, with a footprint of just 25 m2 (269 square feet).
“KODA’s components are manufactured in a controlled and optimised factory environment. As a result erection on a chosen site takes no more than seven hours… KODA doesn’t need any special finishing once built either – allowing you to move in straight away… All KODA needs is a level footing and connection points for water, electricity and sewerage.” – Kodasema
The shell is thin but well-insulated. The windows are quadruple glazed. Through a grid-tied solar system it can produce send more energy back to the grid than it uses. Koda is also free standing and doesn’t require a foundation. The finishing materials are all non-toxic.